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Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education

Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
(An Autonomous Body of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India)

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PROJECTS CONTINUED DURING THE YEAR 2006-2007
(Externally Aided)

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Project 1: Identification of species and ethnobotanical survey [088/TFRI/ 2005/Biod.3(CGMFD)(6)/ 2005-2008]

Status: Survey in eight People Protect Areas (PPAs) of Chhattisgarh at Karpavan, Machkot, Guriya, Jabarra, Shankra, Lamni, Marwahi and Makadi located in Jagadalpur, Dhamtari, Bilaspur, Pendra Road and Kondagaon was conducted for observations on vegetation status. Quadrate study has been conducted in eight PPA sites for documenting floral wealth and increasing or decreasing trend of important forestry species in the area. Vegetational data of PPA for tree species with girth class, regeneration status of major tree species and medicinal plants available in the area were recorded during the study and from previous survey records. Data collected from Jabarra PPA sites of Chhattisgarh forest area for species richness, Diversity Index and IVI have been calculated. Tabulation of regeneration data from Machkot, Sankara, Lamni, Marwahi and Guriya PPA sites for the year 2004- 05 and 2005- 06 have been made. A total of 140 herbarium specimens have been collected. The ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants observed from above PPA sites have been documented. Common and medicinal uses of 73 plants species including 56 dicots and 17 monocots found in the PPA sites are recorded along with proper identification, botanical name and family.

Project 2: Identification of suitable tree species and other vegetation for biodrainage in Bargi command area (Jabalpur, M.P.) [087/TFRI/2005/Ecol-1(MoWR)(7)/ 2005-2010]

Status: The suitable sites having 10 ha area were selected at Bargi command area for experiment. Water samples from the Left Bank Canal (LBC) were collected and analysed for their physical, chemical and biological parameters. The native vegetation of the selected sites was surveyed. Existing cropping pattern in the villages surrounding the selected sites along the LBC of Bargi command area was studied. The soil samples were collected from different horizons and analysed for pH, CEC, organic carbon, available N, P, K, exchangeable Na, K, Ca and Mg. Mechanical analyses for texture of the soil samples were also done. Seeds from phenotypically superior trees of Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia tomentosa, Pongamia pinnata, Boswellia serrata, Ailanthus excelsa, Eucalyptus species (FRI-4 and FRI-5) and Jatropha curcas and bulbils from Agave americana were collected. About 29000 seedlings were raised in nursery. About 3000 seedlings of Jatropha curcas and 1500 seedlings of Agave americana were planted at Bargi command area for bio-fencing of the plantation sites. Profile studies were conducted for selected sites. Transpiration rate (E) of the selected species under nursery condition was measured using Photosynthesis system.

Project 3: Screening of indigenous species of Trichogramma Westwoodand Trichogrammatoidea Girault (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae) from central India and their utilization against important forest insect pests [077/TFRI/2005/Ento-1(9)/ 2005- 2008]

Status: Survey of important localities of Jabalpur, Mandla, Seoni, Behrai, Kanjai, Bamandehi, Sagar, Damoh, Guna, Shivpuri, Kawardha, Durg, Rajnand gaon, Raipur, Bhilai, Kanker, Jagdalpur, Bastar, Narayanpur, Bilaspur, Korba, Janjgeer Chanpa, Jashpur Nagar, Ambikapur, Koria, Dantewara, Mahasamund, Nagpur and Amravati were carried out for the collection of Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea species. Over all 938 specimens belonging to the genera: Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea were collected. Nine species of Trichogramma and two species of Trichogrammatoidea (Trichogramma achaeae, T. chilotraeae, T. hesperidis, T. plasseyensi, T. raoi, T. sembeli, T. vargasi, T. sericini, T. julianoi; Trichogrammatoidea bactrae and T. ruficorpa have been
recorded as indigenous species, existing in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. One culture of local indigenous species, Trichogramma raoi is being maintained. Six new cultures of Trichogramma species were collected from Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. All six new cultures of Trichogramma species are being maintained. Culture of Corcyra cephalonica is being maintained for the use of their eggs as laboratory host / fictitious eggs for Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea species.

Project 4: Studies on refinement and scaling up of existing micro-propagation and macro-propagation technologies for Bambusa nutans and B. tulda [063/TFRI2004/Gen- 1(DBT)(7)/ 2004-2007]

Status: Micropropagation/shoot multiplication: In B. nutans shoot multiplication experiment was conducted to compare stationary cultures and cultures on rotary shaker. Multiplication rate was better in stationary cultures. Bambusa tulda shoot multiplication experiment was conducted under different light regimes, which exhibited non-significant effect on shoot multiplication rate. Presently 750 and 605 propagules of B. nutans and B. tulda are being maintained for multiplication, respectively.

Hardening and acclimatization of plantlets: In the first set of experiment, in vitro raised plantlets of B. nutans and B. tulda were hardened in four types of sterilized substrates, viz., soilrite, perlite, vermiculite and compost in root trainers. Perlite was found to be most suitable hardening mixture with 91% survival of plantlets of B. tulda whereas in B. nutans maximum survival (90%) was observed on vermiculite, which was statistically at par with that on soilrite and perlite. In the second set of experiment six mixtures were tried for hardening, which did not have any significant effect on the survival and height of plants.

 

shoot multiplication of B. nutans  shoot multiplication of B.tulda
Hardening in four substrates in root-trainers  Hardening in four substrates in root-trainers
Pllantlets of B. nutans  Plantlets of B.tulda
Micropropagation of Bambusa nutans and B.tulda

 

Macropropagation: Cuttings of B. nutans from Sambalpur (Orissa) were collected for production of plantlets through adventitious rhizogenesis.

Macroproliferation: Macroproliferation of the plantlets produced through both micropropagation and macropropagation were carried out. For B. nutans 1308 number of micropropagated and 521 number of macropropagated plants were produced and for B. tulda 708 number of micropropagated plants were produced.

Project 5: Processing techniques of NWFPs of Chhattisgarh Madhuca latifolia, Shorea robusta, Schleichera oleosa, Pongamia pinnata, Buchanania lanzans Spreng (Chironjee) [091/TFRI/2005/NWFP-3(CGMFD)(14)/ 2005-2007]

Status: Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (karanj), Madhuca latifolia (mahua), Schleichera oleosa (kusum) from Kundam (Jabalpur) and Kalpi (Mandla); Shorea robusta (sal) and Buchanania lanzan from Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh) were collected. Collected seeds were processed (decorticated, dried and stored). Oil percentage, physico-chemical properties of oil, carbohydrates, and protein content were estimated. Seeds were dried and stored in different containers for the assessment of effects of processing methods on quality of seeds. Fungal flora of seeds was assessed from collected species.

Project 6: Quality assessment of NWFPs from different regions of Chhattisgarh (Species - Asparagus racemosus, Buchanania lanzan, Emblica officinalis, Embelia ribes and Andrographis paniculata) [092/TFRI/2005/ NWFP-4 (CGMFD)(15)/ 2005-2007]

Status: Aonla, Satawar, Chironjee, Vaibidang and Kalmegh were collected from Bilaspur, Dhamtari and Bastar regions of Chhattisgarh. Physico-chemical properties of chironjee seeds were assessed. Ascorbic acid in aonla samples were estimated. Kalmegh samples were prepared for the estimation of Andrographolide with the help of HPLC. Minerals, carbohydrates and saponins in Satawar samples were estimated.

Project 7: Non destructive harvesting practices for selective MFPs - Buchanania lanzan Spreng (Chironjee) [093/TFRI/2005/NWFP-5 (CGMFD) (16)/ 2005-2007]

Status: Physico-chemical properties, viz. moisture percentage, kernel: shell ratio, fruit and seeds eight, oil percentage, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification value, free fatty acid composition and iodine value of oil of Chironjee collected at different intervals were assessed. Minerals and protein were assessed in chironjee seed cake. Two sites (Bilaspur and Sirpur, Chhattisgarh) were selected to conduct experiment for sustainable harvesting.

Project 8: Standardization of sustainable harvesting practices of Terminalia arjuna bark [78/TFRI/2005/NWFP-1(MPFED)(12)/2005-2008]

Status: Surveys were conducted at Balaghat and Jabalpur districts of Madhya Pradesh for laying out of experiments to harvest Arjuna bark. Arjuna trees of different age groups and girth sizes were selected for laying out the experiments to harvest the bark. The experiments were laid out in the forest area of Balaghat as well as in the farmer's field for the extraction of bark. The girth of selected trees ranged between 67-218 cm, bark thickness ranged from 7.12 to 18.65 mm were recorded at breast height. Mean bark thickness at breast height in Arjuna trees was recorded 13.50 mm. Mean thickness of bark varied from trees to trees irrespective of the age and girth of the tree. Mean bark yield per square centimeter ranged between 0.29 gm to 1.25 gm and found varying from tree to tree. Collected bark samples were analysed for tannin and oxalic acid contents. The tannin content ranged from 7.70 to 15.35 gm per 100 gm. The amount of oxalic acid in the bark ranged between 10.50 gm to 20.25 gm per 100 gm. Regular field observations were taken on the recovery of bark. The stage of bark recovery (regrowth) varied from tree to tree. In some trees the bark regeneration is complete. In the areas where water is available throughout the year (near nallas) the recovery of bark was faster. In younger trees the bark regeneration was faster in comparison to older trees. Extraction of bark can be done after two years from the opposite quarter of the blaze without destroying the tree. September October was found the best time to harvest the bark.

Project 9: Standardization of non-destructive harvesting practices of Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), Maida (Litsea chinensis) and Ashoka (Saraca indica) bark [96/TFRI/2005/NWFP-8(CGMFD)(19)/ 2005-2007]

Status: The experiments were laid out to harvest Arjuna and Maida bark in the forest area of Dhamtari, Kanker, Sarguja, Raigarh and Marvahi forest divisions of Chattisgarh. Bark. Samples were collected and processed for chemical analyses. The availability of Maida trees in the forest area is very less. Arjuna bark samples were analysed for tannin and oxalic acid contents. Mucilage and tannin were analysed from Maida bark samples. No Ashoka tree could be found in the forest areas of Chattisgarh. Therefore, experiments were laid out to harvest Ashoka bark in Balaghat and Sagar in Madhya Pradesh. Data on bark regeneration/regrowth were collected from the experiments laid out earlier. The regeneration of bark has started and no tree was found with complete regeneration.

Project 10: Standardization of non-destructive harvesting practices of Baividang (Embelia ribes), Baheda (Terminalia belerica) and Aonla (Emblica officinalis) fruits [97/TFRI/2005/NWFP-8(CGMFD)(20)/ 2005-2007]

Status: Aonla, Baividang and Baheda growing areas were selected in Dhamtari, Kanker, Sarguja, Raigarh and Marvahi forest divisions of Chhattisgarh. Experiments were laid out to harvest Aonla and Baheda fruits. Fresh and dry weight of collected fruit samples was determined. Collected Aonla and Baheda fruits were analysed for tannin, ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Processing of Aonla fruits (boiling, chipping, grating, sun drying, solar cooker drying) was done. Grating was found the best processing method. The different processed samples were analysed for tannin, ascorbic acid and gallic acid contents. The Baividang fruits were analysed for Ca and Mg. Variations were found in fruit size, fruit weight, tannin and ascorbic acid contents in the fruit samples of Aonla and Baheda collected from various locations. The data on regeneration status of Aonla, Baheda and Baividang were collected. New Aonla, Baheda and Baividang seedlings were found in the experimental areas.

Project 11: National Network on Integrated Development of Jatropha and Karanj [73/TFRI-2004/NWFP-3(NOVOD)(11)/ 2004-2007]

Status: Jatropha curcas: 8000 seedlings/plantlets have been raised from the collected superior material. National trial of Jatropha comprising of 3 accessions from 2 participating Institutes has been established at the institute campus. A progeny trial comprising of 20 progenies has been established at Barah experimental area of the Institute. All experiments e.g. national trial, zonal trial, progeny trials and package of practices trials are bring maintained at the Institute campus and its Centre at Chhindwara. The observations on growth attributes like height, collar diameter, number of branches, etc. were recorded at regular intervals. The trials are performing well and the survival is more than 95%. Pruning operations were conducted to study the effect of pruning on growth and productivity of Jatropha. Fatty oils were extracted and yield was estimated to identify the elite trees of Jatropha. The oil percentage varied from 24.07 - 40.06 % from the seeds collected from various agroclimatic regions of the study area. Out of 25 samples, seeds from seven CPTs have been found to contain more than 35% oil. Ten
seed samples were sent to NBPGR, New Delhi for cryopreservation and allotting accession numbers. Initial findings of the study show that the seedlings planted on ridges in the last week of July 2005 performed better than the seedlings planted in pits. Bare-rooted seedlings performed at par with polypotted seedlings if planted within 24 hours after taking out from the nursery beds. The planting of barerooted seedlings reduced the cost of plantation considerably. Pruning had positive impact on seed production of Jatropha as it yielded more fruits.

Pongamia pinnata (Karanj): Twenty five Candidate Plus Trees (CPTs) of Karanj have been selected for collection of fruits from Sagar, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Muraina, Shivpur Kala and Damoh districts of M.P. The data pertaining to individual candidate plus tree on height, dbh, crown area, fruit size (pod) and fruit yield, etc. were collected. A total of 3,000 seedlings have been raised from the seeds collected from various sources. The collected seeds were tested for germination. A zonal trial comprising of 5 accessions received from one institution has been established at the Institute campus. However, a progeny trial comprising of 20 progenies has been established at Barah experimental area of the Institute. Twenty five seed samples collected from various parts of Madhya Pradesh were sent to TERI, New Delhi for oil estimation. Out of 25 samples, 18 samples contain more than 35 % of oil. The oil percentage varied from 31.52 to 39.65 percent. Sixteen Karanj seed samples were sent to NBPGR for cryopreservation and allotting accession numbers. National, zonal and progeny trials raised at the Institute campus and Bhandamuri, Balaghat are being maintained. The dead plants were replaced by the seedlings of same age from same accessions. The survival percentage is more than 90 per cent. Regular field observations were recoded on growth attributes of plants e.g. height, collar diameter, etc.

Project 12: Sustainable yield assessment / harvesting of Non Wood Forest Produce (NWFP) in People's Protected Areas (PPAs) of Chhattisgarh [098/TFRI/2005/ Silvi-3 (CGMFD -10)/ 2005-2007]

Status: Sample plots of Kalmegh were laid out at Jhalpani, Sonakhan Range under Raipur Forest Division and at Lalunga Range of Dharmjaigarh Forest Division. Sample plots of Kalmegh, Malkangni and Satawar were laid out at Mohali Forest Circle in Karpawond Range of Jagadalpur Forest Division. Two sample plots were laid out of Malkangni at Sankara Forest Range under Dhamtari Forest Division. One more sample plot was laid out for Bael at Mohgoan Gandai Range under Khairagarh Forest Division. As per experimental design and regeneration studies, sampling of Satawar, Malkangni and Kalmegh were done and their fresh and dry weights were taken.

Project 13: Nursery technologies of mass multiplication of superior seedlings Balbaring, Sarpgandha, Chironjee Arjun, Aonla, Bael in Chhattisgarh [099/TFRI /2005/Silvi-4 (CGMFD -11)/ 2005-2007]

Status: Seeds of Baividang and cuttings of Maida have been collected from Biligarh Range, Raipur Division in Chhattisgarh. Vegetative propagation experiments under different hormonal treatments were conducted to study the sprouting and rooting performance.

 

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